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Cellular-Tech

*** Things You Must Know about Cellular Technology ***

We are living in the era of electronic age, we oftenly talk about some technical terms like GSM,CDMA, 3G etc in our routine life without knowing their meaning .Here in this article I have tried  to explain some of 
the basic terms of vocabulary   of mobile telecommunication.


What is Spectrum ?
   Radio spectrum refers to a range of radio frequencies. The bandwidth of a radio signal is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies of the signal. For example, in the case of a voice signal having a minimum frequency of 200 hertz (Hz) and a maximum frequency of 3,000 Hz, the bandwidth is 2,800 Hz (3 KHz). The amount of bandwidth needed for 3G services could be as much as 15-20 Mhz, whereas for 2G services a bandwidth of 30-200 KHz is used. Hence, for 3G huge bandwidth is required.
What is 1G Spectrum ?
    1G stand for the first Genration of spectrum for wireless telecommunication, this spectrum was developed in 1980s and signal used in this spectrum were analog signals,In this technology voice calls were modulated to higher frequency upto 150 MHz and it is transmitted between towers. The sound quality was not good in this technology , signal were unsecure also because. This is done using a technique called Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA).
What is  2G Spectrum ? 
   This is successor of 1G technology, 2G stands for the 2nd generation of mobile communication. 2G technology allow greater penetration intensity. Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA).2G network provide much more than a voice call including text messages(SMS),Multimedia Messages (MMS) etc .The difference between 1G and 2G is that 2nd generation use digital signals instead of analog signal. Digital signal are in the binary format and can transfer data more efficiently and digital signals are very difficult (however not impossible) to decode by unauthorized person so these are very much secured signals
A typical 2G G.S.M network service ranges from 800/900MHz or 1800/1900 spectrum. The bandwidth of 2G is 30-200 KHz.
Both the 1G and 2G deals with voice calls and has to utilize the maximum bandwidth as well as a limited till sending messages i.e. SMS. The latest technologies such as GPRS, is not available in these generations. But the greatest disadvantage as concerned to 1G is that with this we could contact with in the premises of that particular nation, where as in case of 2G the roaming facility a semi-global facility is available.
2.5G (GPRS) ?
You must have heard about GPRS,2.5G is nothing but GPRS. 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster services.I m not going to elaborate  packet and circuit switching it is a technology where you need to study more and more in a broad language combination of packet and circuit switching allow you to transfer data from your mobile phone or simply we can say that allow to access internet right from our cell phone.GPRS stand for General Packet Radio Service. GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s.GPRS works on some protocols.These protocols are internet protocols (IP),point to point protocols (PPP.)Most of you must have talked to your mobile service provider to activate GPRS and they deliver you some setting on your phones, these setting are nothing  but are settings for these protocols like DNS address ,IP etc so that you can connect to your ISP and can gain access over world wide web (WWW)services.
What  is 2.5 G (EDGE ) ?
You must have seen EDGE in internet data cards and in some mobile phones also particulary in SAMSUNG and blackberry handsets. These use EDGE technology for intenet access along with GPRS. EDGE stand for Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution EDGE was deployed on GSM network first in 2003 by an American telecom giant AT&T.EDGE  can achieves higher data-rates up to 236.8 kbit/s by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK), within existing GSM timeslots.One more thing in EDGE is that both upload are download speed are equel in EDGE however in GPRS download speed is always greater than upload speed.
What is 3G ?

3G (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA) ?
 3G stand for the third generation of mobile communication.3G enable us  to simultaneously transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging e-mail, and instant messaging. The highlight of 3G is video telephony.


GSM: Global System for Mobile is a 2nd generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation

CDMA :  "Code Division Multiple Access" is a digital radio system that transmits streams of bits ). CDMA permits several radios to share the same frequencies. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies

Mobile Network Operator : Mobile network operators are some companies that purchase spectrum license and transmit signals of cells phone from one network to other using many type of equipement like satellite ,fiber cables ,radio towers and technology like CDMA,GSM,2G,3G etc.I n India some of them are Bharti Airtel, IDEA, Reliance Telecom etc.

World’s Top 5 leading Telecom operator:
Operator
Main Market
Approximate Subscriber(Millions)
China Mobile
China
627.63 (Aug 2011)
Vodafone
United Kingdom
381.72(June2011)
America Movil
Mexico
236 (June 2011)
Telefonica
Spain
227.32 (June2011)
Airtel
India
227.04 (Sept 2011)
Source -Wiki-Pedia



   Operating system in Cell Phone :



Cell phone use many kind of operating system .Operating system is software that provide interface between user and cell phone. Some cell phone use their own proprietor OS, where as other use some standard OS. Most of phone use java based OS. Nokia Use Symbian OS in its smart phones, Samsung use Bada  and others OS, Blackberry use Blackberry OS .Most of these OS are java based.
Nows days enterprise level OS are gaining popularity in business and entertainment based application. Google launch its own OS named as Android as universal mobile OS. It has been adopted by many cell manufacture like Samsung,Motorola ,Sony erriscon and many others.While Apple is also giving a tight completion with its iphone, blackberry is also a leading in business applications with blackberry OS.
                                                                      


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Disclaimer : Information provide in this article is collection from various resource.All the content in this  artical is for information purpose only.Although i have tried to provide best information still there is absoulutly no guarantee of accuracy.The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. The owner of this blog reserves the right to edit or delete any comments submitted to this blog without notice. ---Satish Malanch.

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